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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2993\margr3562\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2993\margrsxn3562\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li40\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx2304 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-14\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 9\super 8{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw1 MAHAVlRA}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri22\sb212\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw8\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 timate, Parsvanatha, appears to have been an histori\-\expndtw6 cal personage, but the rest are all dim and shadowy \expndtw12 figures., wrapped up in mythology. He was the son \expndtw9 of king Asvasena of Benares, but Parsva abandoned \expndtw2 the royal state in favour of a life spiritual. His main \expndtw3 injunctions were : (i) non-injury, (2) non-lying, i.e., not to tell lies, (3) non-stealing, (4) non-possession. We do not know how far he progressed in his mission, but the \expndtw11 next \i Tirthamkara, \i0 Mahavlra, who followed Parsva \expndtw5 after about 250 years\sub 3\nosupersub  definitely placed the religion on \expndtw15 a secure footing. Vardhamana, as Mahavlra was \expndtw2 known earlier in his family circles, was born at Kunda-\expndtw7 grama, near Vais"all. He was the son of Siddhartha, \expndtw13 Head of the Ksatriya Jnatrika sect, and his mother \expndtw6 was Trisala, sister of the Licchavi chieftain, Cetaka, \expndtw9 whose daughter was married to Bimbisara. Vatdha-\expndtw7 mana thus had an aristocratic .lineage, and this must have materially helped him in his ministry. We learn \expndtw11 that after leading an ordinary householder's life till \expndtw9 the age of thirty, he wandered away from home to \expndtw2 become an ascetic. He practised severe meditation and \expndtw4 subjected his body to the utmost self-torture for twelve \expndtw3 long years. At last, he attained to omniscience \i (kaival-\expndtw4 ja), \i0 and^ was hailed as the 'Nirgrantha' (free of fetters), \expndtw9 or the 'Jina' (conqueror), from which is derived the \expndtw15 name of his followers. From this time onward till \expndtw3 nis death, thirty years later, at the age of seventy-two, \expndtw1 Mahavlra spread the tenets of his religion in Magadha, \i\expndtw7 **?&> \i0 Mithila^and Kosala. To the four virtues en\-\expndtw3 joined by Parsva, he added a fifth, viz., strict chastity, \expndtw14 gave \sub up\nosupersub  clothing, and went about naked. Some}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li414\fi1228\ri0\sb29\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 into Svetambaras and Digam-to tins \sub new\nosupersub  practice of Mahavlra.    But this view \expndtw4 * \super no\nosupersub\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'a3\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 .\super a\nosupersub PPett to be tenable, as the schism took place \expndtw14 T\super 61\nosupersub ^\super 7\nosupersub  \super B\nosupersub -\super c\nosupersub - after the return of the Jains}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1282\fi266\ri0\sb83\sa0\sl-176\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw15\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 trS \super where\nosupersub  \super the\nosupersub y \super had\nosupersub  retired owing   to \expndtw6 r the leadership of Bhadrabahu.  Mahavlra}\par }